For most of our history, we rested easy on the idea that there are three dimensions that have existed over time, length, width and height. Ah, the good old days. In the 20th century, Albert Einstein and Hermann Minkowski connected our comfortable three dimensions with a fourth time, the definition of special relativity with a space-time continuum.
This type of work, but still does not explain a new theory called problem of quantum gravity, which arose around the same time of Minkowski and Einstein were working on their theories. Quantum mechanics has its own rules that contradict the concepts behind space-time continuum. Scientists try this incompatibility as the time for decades, discuss it, but actually does nothing.
Although the increase in the theoretical dimensions began with Descartes in 1600, string theory in 1970 extended this idea as physicists tried to tie everything together in an elegant explanation of the universe. The variations of string theory requires the existence of eleven dimensions and a lot of universes, our universe forming three-dimensional membrane floating some higher dimensional donut. According to this theory, every point in space has six dimensions than wrapped in super-small flame geometries Calibio-Yau varieties.
A string theory suggests that the reason why only three spatial dimensions is that all universes with higher dimensions got into a car accident and destroying cosmic each other, leaving our paltry three-dimensional membrane intact. List of all episodes here: through the hole.